On Swāt. Historical and Archaeological Notes

Autore/i: Tucci Giuseppe
Editore: ISIAO
Foreword by Gherardo Gnoli.
Introduction by Domenico Faccenna pp. 350, ill. b/n, Roma


The publication of this collection of writings by Giuseppe Tucci is intended by ISIAO to serve two purposes: as a tribute to the memory of the great scholar who was the founder and inspiration for over fifty years, and as a homage to the culture of a great country.

On Swāt. Historical and Archaeological Notes bears witness to the scientific commitment and love with which Professor Tucci devoted himself and his Institute to the study of a region which has made a fundamental contribution to the development of civilization, especially in religion and art, in one of the most significant meeting points of the various cultures of the one Eurasian continent.

A vast amount of work has been carried out since Professor Tucci’ s first reconnaissance in the Swāt Valley in 1955. A large number of books and hundreds of scientific papers are the fruit of Giuseppe Tucci’ s spirit of initiative, intuition and enthusiasm, of the steadfast determination with which he pursued his own work and that of others.

Today, more than forty years after that happy beginning to Italian studies in Pakistan, it is my great pleasure to confirm on behalf of the Institute as a whole not only our uninterrupted commitment but also our determination to intensify efforts, increase effectiveness and expand horizons. The seed planted by Giuseppe Tucci will bear new fruit. The spirit of friendship and the will to work together which inspire the scholars of our two countries is an unshakcable heritage, a guarantee of mutual understanding that nothing can ever destroy.

ISIAO’s warmest thanks are therefore expressed to those who have worked to pay homage to the memory of the man who was the teacher of us aH: to Giuseppe Tucci’s collaborators and students – Domenico Faccenna, Umberto Scerrato and Maurizio Taddei – for their part in the publication of this volume, and to Luciano Petech for his invaluable, scholarly contribution.

I should also like to take advantage of this happy occasion lo assure our many Pakistani colleagues and friends of ISIAO’s deepest esteem and acknowledgement of the help they have unfailingly provided in over forty years of endeavours which ISIAO could never have tackled alone.

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Foreword (Gh. Gnoli)

Introduction (D. Faccenna)

List of abbreviations

Travels of Tibetan Pilgrims in the Swat Valley
(Opera Minora, II, Roma, Bardi, 1971, pp. 369-418)

Tibetan Texts

Preliminary Report on an Archaeological Survey in Swat
(East and West, IX.4, 1958, pp. 279-328)

The Tombs of the Asvakayana-Assakenoi
(East and West, XIV.l-2, 1963, pp. 27-28)

Oriental Notes, II: An Image of a Devi Discovered in Swat and Some Connected Problems
(East and West, XIV.3-4, 1963, pp. 146-182)

Oriental Notes, III: A Peculiar Image from Gandhāra
(East and West, XVIII.3-4, 1968, pp. 289-292)

On Swāt. The Dards and Connected Problems
(East and West, XXVII. 1-4, 1977, pp. 9-85,94-103)

On a Sculpture of Gandhāra
(Opera Minora, II, Roma, Bardi, 1971, pp. 595-598)

Oriental Notes, V: Preliminary Account of an Inscription from North-Weslem Pakistan
(East and West, XX.1-2, 1970, pp. 103-104) .

Himalayan Cina
(Études tibétaines dédiées à la mémoire de Marcelle Lalou, Paris, A. Maisonneuve, 1971, pp. 548-552)

Preface and Introduction to Il trono di diamante (The Diamand Throne)
(Il trono di diamante, Bari, De Donato, 1967, pp. 9-14)

Recent Explorations in Swat
(Explorations récentes dans le Swat, Le Muséon, LXXIX, 1966, pp. 42-58)

Swat Museum, Saidu Sharif (Rome 1963)
(on the Occasion of the Inauguration of the Swat Museum)

In the Path of Alexander the Great: Italian Excavations in Swat, Northern Pakistan
(The Illustrated London News, 12 April, 1958, pp. 603-605)

In the Footsteps of Alexander and the Land of the Assakenoi: Excavations in Faraway Swat, Northern Pakistan
(The Illustrated London News, 30 May, 1964, pp. 856-858)

Biographical Note (L. Petech)

Honours Awarded in Pakistan

Obituaries Published in Pakistan

F.A. Khan, Rediscoverer of Swat: Prof. Tucci
(Dawn, 27 Aprii, 1984)

A. Nabi Khan, Prof. Tucci
(Dawn, 26 May, 1984)

Kalyani Rahmat Ali, The Lama of the West
(Herald, May, 1984)

M. Taddei, Giuseppe Tucci (1894-1984)
(Joumal of Central Asia, IX. 1, July, 1986)

Buddhist Caves of Jāghūrī and Qarabāgh-e Ghazni, Afghanistan

Autore/i: Verardi Giovanni; Paparatti Elio
Editore: Isiao
with an Appendix by Minoru Inaba pp. 120, in appendice CXVI tavv. b/n f.t., ill. b/n, mappe allegate, Roma

THE CAVES – General Observations:

The Jāghūrī ano Qarabāgh groups of caves not only belong to one and the same geographical environment but also share common characteristics in terms of typologies and the techniques employed to excavate them. The features they have in common are discussed in a separate chapter for the reader’s convenience, and to avoid repetitions in the descriptive chapter.

As pointed out above, the walls of the rock formations into which the caves were hewn out have partly collapsed. Frost split the rock along the clefts, rain and snow opened fissures, and the combined action of earthquakes led lo further collapse of walls already weakened by the excavation work. Consequently, huge blocks of rock and piles of debris often encumber the entrance to the caves, as well as the inner rooms and corridors, which are often inaccessible.

The cave fronlt as we see it now does not in general correspond to the original front of the rock-cut monasteries; today the mountain walls look as if cross-sectioned by falls of rock. Where the original front is preserved, the openings are generally warped by either the action or the natural elements or re-working activity carried out by later dwellers when the monastic period had come to an end. These have probably always been the poorest among the local people, unable even to afford houses in unfired brick, living in the caves with their cattle over the centuries. At Nāy Qal’a, however, we have an example of a cave preserving the original façade and at Tapa Zaytūn the outline of a large niche is intact…

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Foreword (by Giovanni Verardi)

Transliterations and Transcriptions




General Observations

The Caves to the East of Mount Dehbaday

1. Nāy Qal’a

2. Homāy Qal’a

The Caves of the Upper Arghandāb Valley

The Caves along the Tayna Tangī/Daryā-ye Gawargīn

3. Tapa Sanawbar

4. Shāh Khwāja

5. Ghār-e Shākī Nōka

6. Gawargīn

7. Kōh-e Ēl

8. Ghār-e Shāh

The Caves along the Qōl-e Karīz in the Nāwaye Khodāydād

9. Sangdara

10. Tapa Hesār and Bālā Khāna

11. Bayak and Lālā Khēl

The Caves along the Daryā-ye Alwadā and beyond

12. Qaryā-ye Bābā Kamāl

13. Tapa Zaytūn

Excursus: Cave 2 al Haybāk

14. Shotor Ghār and Tōp-e Āhangarān


To the West of Ghaznī: The Archaeological Data

Caojuzha/Zābulistān and Jāghūrī


The Buddhist Kingdom of Zābul

Buddhist and tīrthikas


APPENDIX: Nāy Qal’a, Wujīristān and the Khalaj (by Minoru Inaba)




Repertorio Terminologico per la Schedatura delle Sculture dell’Arte Gandharica

Sulla base dei materiali provenienti dagli scavi della missione archeologica italiana dell’IsIAO nello Swat, Pakistan
Autore/i: Faccenna Domenico; Filigenzi Anna
Editore: Isiao
pp. 280, ill. b/n, Roma


L’analisi e la descrizione di un oggetto necessitano di un linguaggio e di una terminologia quanto più possibile univoci e costanti, onde evitare al massimo una disturbante varietà espressiva, purtroppo frequente. La coerenza terminologica del linguaggio inoltre diventa necessaria qualora si faccia uso di tecniche di schedatura informatizzata. Questo è precisamente il nostro caso.

Pertanto nella schedatura e nello studio del materiale scultoreo di arte gandharica, proveniente dagli scavi della Missione Archeologica Italiana dell’lslAO (già IsMEO) in Pakistan, si è ritenuto opportuno elaborare un Repertorio Terminologico, organizzato per argomento. Il materiale comprende rilievi figurali, statue, elementi architettonici, decorati o semplicemente modanati, quali parti di monumenti.

Il Repertorio, pur riferentesi nella sua fase iniziale soprattutto a tale materiale, si è successivamente ampliato, comprendendo l’insieme di questa produzione artistica manifestatasi nella regione del Gandhara e quindi talvolta esteso nei sensi geografico (Afghanistan) e temporale (post-Gandhara). Esso, iniziato da tempo, ha subito poi inevitabilmente un graduale processo di elaborazione, del quale si riscontrano evidenti tracce nella scelta bibliografica del materiale e nella sua rappresentazione grafica.

Esso non è un dizionario poiché una tale opera si pone per sua natura quale prodotto conclusivo di una ricerca; non è un manuale pur fornendo dati e parametri utili; non ha ovviamente illusorie pretese di completezza. Esso si pone soltanto come primo strumento di lavoro, nel corso del quale potrà acquistare una definizione più articolata e forse giungere ad una sufficiente ampiezza.

I termini scelti oscillano tra una loro natura ora prettamente tecnica ora più generica e corrente: ciò sta appunto a sottolineare la convenzionalità della loro assunzione e come in tali limiti debbano essere considerati. La loro scelta è dettata da un principio di utilità del tutto pratica per giungere all’adozione e all’impiego di un comune linguaggio.

Ripetizioni, errori e imprecisioni nei lemmi, mancanze, discontinuità nella disposizione delle immagini, possono nel tempo essere ovviate. Il lavoro è “aperto”: né può essere altrimenti per un materiale, come il nostro, che sempre più si arricchisce nel numero e nelle particolarità espressive.

Ci si è fermati alla descrizione dell’oggetto nella sua forma rappresentativa. Procedere oltre, nel contenuto, nella sua esegesi, avrebbe significato entrare in altra dimensione di lavoro, che non appartiene alle finalità del presente assunto…

Con la collaborazione di Pia Brancaccio, Pierfrancesco Callieri, Domenico Giubilei, Ciro Lo Muzio, Francesco Martore, Patrizio Pensabene, Peter Rockwell, Piero Spagnesi, Elisabetta Valento.